How to Do Squats Correctly: Your Guide To Proper Squat Form

How to Do Squats
Step into the transformative world of squats, where strength meets health, and every squat tells a unique story of resilience. Here at WS, we understand the profound impact squats can have on your fitness journey. More than a popular strength training exercise, squats are a holistic movement that goes beyond sculpting your glutes; they fortify multiple lower body and core muscle groups, promoting mobility, enhancing body composition, and nurturing bone and joint health.

What is squat

Squats stand as the cornerstone of effective strength training exercises, contributing significantly to both physical health and aesthetic goals. This dynamic compound exercise engages a multitude of muscle groups, including the powerful glutes, quads, hamstrings, and calves. Beyond its impact on muscle strength and definition, squats play a pivotal role in enhancing overall body composition and bone health. As a versatile workout that can be performed with weights or as a bodyweight exercise, squats cater to various training styles, making them adaptable to different fitness levels and preferences. 

Benefits of Squats

Time Saving: Squats offer an efficient workout option, engaging multiple muscle groups simultaneously. This compound exercise allows you to maximize your training time, targeting various areas in one impactful movement.
Improved Strength & Mobility: Incorporating squats into your routine leads to enhanced strength, particularly in the lower body muscle groups like glutes, quads, and hamstrings. Additionally, the dynamic nature of squats promotes improved joint mobility, contributing to overall flexibility.
Functional Gains: Squats mimic real-life movements, making them highly functional. The strength developed through squats translates into better performance in daily activities, from lifting objects to maintaining balance.
Body Composition Benefits: Squats contribute to favorable changes in body composition by promoting muscle growth and aiding in fat loss. This dual impact makes them a valuable addition to any fitness regimen.
Bone Health: Regular squatting plays a crucial role in enhancing bone density, providing long-term benefits for skeletal health. This is particularly important for maintaining bone strength as you age.
Versatility in Training: Whether using weights or as a bodyweight exercise, squats offer versatility in training styles. This adaptability makes them accessible to individuals with different fitness levels and preferences.
Increased Metabolism: The intensity of squats stimulates the metabolism, contributing to increased calorie burn both during and after the workout. This metabolic boost is beneficial for weight management and overall metabolic health.
Balanced Muscle Development: Squats engage various muscle groups, ensuring balanced development in the lower body. This balance is essential for preventing muscle imbalances and reducing the risk of injuries.

Muscles Worked by the Squat

Engaging in squats activates a comprehensive network of muscles, making it one of the most effective compound exercises for overall strength and muscle development. The primary muscle groups worked during squats include:
Quadriceps (Quads): The front thigh muscles, comprising the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and rectus femoris, are heavily engaged during squats, especially when extending the knee.
Hamstrings: The muscles at the back of the thigh, including the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus, work to flex the knee and extend the hip during the upward phase of the squat.
Glutes: The gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus play a pivotal role in hip extension during squats, contributing significantly to the upward movement.
Calves (Gastrocnemius and Soleus): The calf muscles are activated during the upward phase of the squat as they assist in pushing off the ground.
Core Muscles: The muscles of the core, including the rectus abdominis, obliques, and transverse abdominis, are engaged to stabilize the spine and maintain proper posture throughout the squat.
Lower Back (Erector Spinae): The erector spinae muscles along the spine work isometrically to provide support and stability during both the descent and ascent of the squat.
Adductors: Inner thigh muscles, such as the adductor longus and adductor magnus, are activated to stabilize the legs during the squat.

How to Do Squats

Follow these step-by-step instructions to ensure you perform squats correctly:

Starting Position:

  • Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, toes pointing slightly outward.
  • Keep your back straight, shoulders relaxed, and engage your core.

Descent Phase

  • Initiate the squat by bending your knees and pushing your hips back as if you're sitting into a chair.
  • Ensure your knees track over your toes, keeping them in line with your feet.
  • Lower your body until your thighs are parallel to the ground or as far as your flexibility allows.

Bottom Position

  • Maintain a strong core and upright torso at the bottom of the squat.
  • Ensure your weight is evenly distributed through your heels and midfoot.

Ascent Phase

  • Push through your heels, engaging your glutes and quads, to return to the starting position.
  • Keep your chest up and maintain a neutral spine throughout the upward movement.

Breathing Technique

  • Inhale as you lower into the squat.
  • Exhale as you push through your heels to stand back up.

Tips for Proper Form

  • Keep your knees in line with your feet, avoiding inward collapsing.
  • Avoid rounding your back; maintain a natural arch.
  • Look straight ahead to help keep your spine aligned.
  • Start with bodyweight squats before adding external resistance.

Different Squat Variations

  • Goblet Squats: Hold a weight close to your chest, allowing for a deeper squat while engaging your core. This variation is ideal for beginners to reinforce proper form.
  • Front Squats: Rest the barbell on the front of your shoulders, crossing your arms or using a clean grip. This emphasizes quads and challenges your core stability.
  • Sumo Squats: Take a wide stance with toes pointing outward. This targets the inner thighs and glutes more intensely.
  • Overhead Squats: Hold a weight overhead, emphasizing shoulder stability. This variation requires enhanced mobility and engages the entire body.
  • Pistol Squats: Lift one leg off the ground while squatting on the other. This enhances balance, stability, and unilateral leg strength.
  • Bulgarian Split Squats: Place one foot on an elevated surface behind you. This focuses on each leg individually, promoting balance and strength.
  • Box Squats: Lower onto a box or bench, ensuring proper depth. Box squats help reinforce squat mechanics and control.
  • Hack Squats: Performed with a hack squat machine or barbell behind your body. This targets quads and minimizes stress on the lower back.
  • Single-Leg Squats (Assisted): Use a support for balance while squatting on one leg. This improves unilateral leg strength and stability.
  • Smith Machine Squats: Utilize a Smith machine for added stability. This is suitable for those focusing on controlled movements.

How to Progress Your Squats

Once you've mastered the basics of squatting, progressing your routine is key to ongoing strength development. Start by gradually increasing the weight, ensuring that your form remains impeccable. 

Introducing plyometric variations, such as jump squats, adds an explosive element to challenge your muscles and improve agility. Experiment with advanced techniques like pause squats or tempo squats, focusing on controlled movements to enhance muscle engagement. 

Varying the range of motion and using different types of resistance, such as bands or kettlebells, adds diversity to your workouts. Don't forget to progressively increase repetitions, sets, and overall demands on your muscles. 

Best Squat Workouts

Best Squat Workouts

Full-Body Power Circuit

  • Combine traditional squats, explosive jump squats, and goblet squats for a high-intensity circuit targeting multiple muscle groups.

Strength-Building Barbell Routine

  • Emphasize barbell back squats to maximize strength gains, progressively increasing weight for a challenging and effective workout.

Dumbbell Ladder Challenge

  • Start with lighter dumbbells, increasing weight with each set for a challenging ladder-style routine, testing both strength and endurance.

Tabata Squat Intervals

  • Incorporate short bursts of bodyweight squats followed by brief rests in a Tabata-style workout to enhance cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance.

Box Squat Pyramid

box squat exercise woman workout fitness
  • Begin with moderate weight and adjust it with each set in a pyramid fashion, focusing on controlled movements and varying resistance.

Functional Fitness Squat Medley

  • Combine squats with kettlebell swings, lunges, and box jumps for a dynamic, full-body functional workout targeting stability and power.

High-Intensity EMOM Squats

  • Challenge yourself with Every Minute on the Minute (EMOM) squats, adjusting reps based on your fitness level for an intense and time-efficient session.

Single-Leg Focus Routine

Single-Leg Squat Exercise
  • Incorporate single-leg squats like pistol squats and Bulgarian split squats to enhance unilateral strength and stability.

Bodyweight Squat Pyramid

  • Perform bodyweight squats in a pyramid fashion, adjusting reps for a challenging no-equipment routine that can be done anywhere.

Squat and Sprint Combo

  • Alternate between sets of squats and short sprints to elevate your heart rate and incorporate a mix of strength and cardio in one workout.

Common Mistakes That Lead to Bad Squat Form

Rounding the Back: Allowing your back to curve during squats can strain the spine. Maintain a natural arch in your back throughout the movement, keeping your chest up and shoulders back.

Knees Caving In

Allowing the knees to collapse inward reduces stability and raises the risk of injury. Maintain alignment between your knees and feet, preventing inward collapse.

Shallow Squats

Not reaching sufficient depth limits engagement of crucial muscle groups. Strive for a depth where your thighs are parallel to the ground, ensuring a full range of motion.

Overarching the Lower Back

Hyperextending the lower back increases injury risk and compromises squat effectiveness. Keep a neutral spine, avoiding excessive arching in the lower back.

Using Improper Weights

Starting with overly heavy weights compromises form and raises injury risk. Initiate with a weight that allows controlled movements, progressing as strength improves.

Ignoring Mobility and Flexibility

Neglecting warm-ups and mobility exercises limits your range of motion. Include dynamic stretches and warm-ups to enhance joint mobility and flexibility before squatting.

Poor Foot Positioning

Incorrect foot placement affects stability and form. Ensure feet are shoulder-width apart, experimenting with angles for the most stable and comfortable position.

Inconsistent Breathing

Neglecting proper breathing compromises stability and overall performance. Inhale as you lower into the squat, exhale as you push up, maintaining a steady breathing rhythm.


In essence, squats offer a multifaceted approach to fitness, building strength and functional prowess. However, avoiding common mistakes, progressing thoughtfully, and incorporating diverse routines are pivotal for maximizing the benefits and ensuring a resilient, well-rounded physique
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